459 – 1 = 458
Tytuł: Zasady Ekonomii
Autor: Carl Menger
Nie wiem co napisać ¯_(ツ)_/¯ Autor wykłada rozsądne fundamenty na których można dalej tworzyć teorię ekonomii. Wyjaśnia dlaczego wartość nie bierze się z włożonej w dane dobro pracy, jak tworzą się ceny, czemu handel jest zawsze korzystny dla obu stron i dlaczego gospodarce potrzeba pieniądza. O ile treść jest prosta do zrozumienia (bo porusza w większości tematy dla ekonomistów oczywiste), to czytanie tłumaczenia z XIX-wiecznego niemieckiego na angielski jest jakimś wyzwaniem, bo Menger strasznie często korzysta ze skomplikowanych, wielokrotnie złożonych zdań z wieloma wtrąceniami które są dość nienaturalne dla języka angielskiego.
Dla kogoś kto zna podstawy #ase to nie będzie nic nowego, ale książka zasługuje na zdecydowanie dłuższą i lepsza recenzję niż cokolwiek co taki brainlet jak ja mógłby napisać xD
The value an economizing individual attributes to a good is equal to the importance of the particular satisfaction that depends on his command of the good. There is no necessary and direct connection between the value of a good and whether, or in what quantities, labor and other goods of higher order were applied to its production. A non-economic good (a quantity of timber in a virgin forest, for example) does not attain value for men if large quantities of labor or other economic goods were applied to its production. Whether a diamond was found accidentally or was obtained from a diamond pit with the employment of a thousand days of labor is completely irrelevant for its value. In general, no one in practical life asks for the history of the origin of a good in estimating its value, but considers solely the services that the good will render him and which he would have to forgo if he did not have it at his command. Goods on which much labor has been expended often have no value, while others, on which little or no labor was expended, have a very high value. Goods on which much labor was expended and others on which little or no labor was expended are often of equal value to economizing men. The quantities of labor or of other means of production applied to its production cannot, therefore, be the determining factor in the value of a good. Comparison of the value of a good with the value of the means of production employed in its production does, of course, show whether and to what extent its production, an act of past human activity, was appropriate or economic. But the quantities of goods employed in the production of a good have neither a necessary nor a directly determining influence on its value.
Equally untenable is the opinion that the determining factor in the value of goods is the quantity of labor or other means of production that are necessary for their reproduction. A large number of goods cannot be reproduced (antiques, and paintings by old masters, for instance) and thus, in a number of cases, we can observe value but no possibility of reproduction. For this reason, any factor connected with reproduction cannot be the determining principle of value in general. Experience, moreover, shows that the value of the means of production necessary for the reproduction of many goods (old-fashioned clothes and obsolete machines, for instance) is sometimes considerably higher and sometimes lower than the value of the products themselves.
The determining factor in the value of a good, then, is neither the quantity of labor or other goods necessary for its production nor the quantity necessary for its reproduction, but rather the magnitude of importance of those satisfactions with respect to which we are conscious of being dependent on command of the good. This principle of value determination is universally valid, and no exception to it can be found in human economy.